Vesicovaginal Fistula: Signs, Analysis, and Therapy


Vesicovaginal fistula (VVF) is an uncomfortable and doubtlessly distressing situation that causes steady urinary leakage out of your vagina. There are efficient remedy choices; however in components of the world the place girls have restricted entry to healthcare, this situation could be debilitating and humiliating.

VVF is a story of two worlds. One through which girls have entry to healthcare once they ship infants, and one through which they’ve little to no entry. In excessive revenue nations, VVF is a preventable and extremely treatable situation. In low and center revenue nations, VVF could be a life altering, stigmatizing disaster for hundreds of thousands of girls.

VVF is an irregular opening between your bladder and vagina. This opening causes steady urinary incontinence — steady leaking of urine by way of your vagina.

Whereas this situation is uncommon in nations through which girls have entry to reproductive healthcare, it’s extra widespread in areas with restricted entry to this care.

In lots of areas of the world, unrepaired VVF is a major well being drawback. It’s estimated that a minimum of three million girls worldwide reside with unrepaired VVFs, and between 30,000 and 130,00 girls obtain a analysis every year.

The first symptom of VVF is steady vaginal discharge and ache with vaginal intercourse. But when the fistula is small, watery discharge after urination could be the solely symptom.

Different signs of VVF could embody:

VVF could be congenital, that means you have been born with it. Extra usually although, it’s acquired, that means it’s a results of one other medical occasion or harm.

Congenital VVF is a uncommon situation. In america and different excessive revenue nations, the commonest trigger of VVF is an harm to your bladder throughout gynecologic or different pelvic surgical procedure. It may additionally happen due to gynecologic most cancers or because of radiation remedy.

In lots of low and center revenue nations, the commonest trigger of VVF that’s acquired is extended or obstructed labor. Labor is taken into account obstructed when the fetus can’t enter the start canal even when uterine contractions are robust. When this occurs, components of the fetus comparable to the top or shoulder press in opposition to the pelvis and may trigger harm to the tissues of the encompassing space.

Further causes can embody:

  • trauma throughout labor and supply (comparable to assisted vaginal deliveries that contain devices)
  • infections and inflammatory ailments
  • overseas objects (comparable to pessaries)
  • sexual trauma and violence
  • vaginal laser procedures

In america and different excessive revenue nations, the principle reason for VVF is pelvic surgical procedures, and it might not be associated to being pregnant.

In many of the world, particularly low and center revenue nations, extended labor is the principle reason for VVF. If left untreated, VVF can trigger disgrace, different well being issues, and social isolation.

Danger elements for VVF ensuing from being pregnant embody:

  • lack of entry to expert care throughout supply
  • period of labor
  • lack of being pregnant care
  • early marriage and younger age at birthing
  • older age

After restore of VVF, it is feasible to renew sexual activity and have pregnancies that end in reside births.

Correctly diagnosing VVF and getting as a lot data as potential about it previous to surgical procedure is essential. Whereas self-reports are useful, there are checks as effectively.

The next exams and checks could also be carried out to assist diagnose VVF:

  • Bodily examination. The realm the place the fistula is will probably be examined for irritation or different abnormalities. This will help decide one of the best surgical strategy for restore.
  • Imaging checks. A physician or healthcare skilled could order imaging checks comparable to pelvic X-ray, CT scan, and CT scan with distinction with a view to see how your bladder and uterus look and precisely the place the fistula or gap has developed.
  • Double dye check. On this check, your bladder is full of an answer that’s dyed blue after which a tampon is inserted into your vagina. If the tampon turns blue, a VVF is current.
  • Cystourethroscopy. A cystoscopy may assist make clear precisely the place the VVF is. This will help additional support in remedy planning.

For VVFs which have been discovered early, which might be small, and which might be noncancerous, conservative remedies could also be as much as virtually 93 % efficient. These may assist with the spontaneous closure of the fistula. These remedies could embody:

  • Catheter. To assist along with your signs, a catheter could also be positioned for two to eight weeks together with medicines referred to as anticholinergics that assist cease some involuntary muscle motion.
  • Electrocoagulation. Now not thought-about a primary line remedy, this process makes use of warmth from {an electrical} present to take away the innermost layer of tissue, referred to as the mucosal layer, across the VVF. Subsequent, a catheter will probably be inserted and left in place for two to 4 weeks as you heal.

If conservative remedy fails or isn’t an choice, surgical restore could also be carried out. Surgical restore of VVF is bigger than 97 % efficient. And a number of other forms of surgical procedure could also be used, comparable to:

  • Laparoscopic. Laparoscopic surgical procedure is an alternative choice to open surgical procedure. Utilizing a small digicam and small tube referred to as a catheter, surgical procedure is carried out by way of a small incision or reduce opening.
  • Robotic. In robotic surgical procedure, the physician is assisted however a robotic device.
  • Transvaginal. Throughout transvaginal surgical procedure, surgical procedure is carried out by going by way of the vagina. One widespread kind of this surgical procedure is named the Latzko restore.
  • Open transabdominal. This surgical procedure includes an open incision within the stomach space.
  • Transurethral endoscopic. This surgical procedure includes going by way of the urethral to restore the fistula.

Throughout fistula restore surgical procedure, the opening the place urine is leaking into your vagina is closed to cease the incontinence. If there’s any harm to your bladder, extra procedures could also be wanted.

In excessive revenue nations, VVF is often prevented, however when it does happen is mostly efficiently handled and managed.

In nations with restricted entry to healthcare, steps have to be taken to handle the danger elements for VVF. This will embody delaying first being pregnant, rising entry to obstetric care, and stopping any conventional practices that will additional increase the danger of VVF. Some types of feminine genital mutilation can improve the danger of fistula as effectively.

VVF could be a distressing situation, however it’s manageable and treatable.

When you’ve got a VVF, speak with a health care provider. They’ll be capable to study your fistula and work with you to create a remedy plan that’s greatest to your scenario.


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